Unequal Equality: Belonging, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Modern Democracies
My dissertation explores the limits of political belonging in modern democracies and its relationship with formal inclusion (citizenship). Does formal inclusion lead to belonging? I argue that the strengthening of formal inclusion is both necessary, yet also counterproductive to political belonging. The dissertation combines a theoretical argument with an empirically-driven discussion of the shortcomings of formal inclusion. At the core of the qualitative empirical section of the dissertation is a comparison of Mexico and France in one chapter, and the United States and Canada in another.